(The CORONAS Launch Vehicle)
CORONAS spacecrafts are launched by the CYCLONE-3 booster rocket manufactured by the
"Yuzhnoye" design bureau (Ukraine).
The Cyclone booster rocket development started in the late 60s of the XX century under
the guidance of M.K.Yangel and was based on the two-stage ICBM R-36. The rocket was
upgraded by the additional third stage of original design. The trajectory of the first two
stages only depend on the initial coordinates of the launch pad and expected place of
decent of the debries, the payload is placed into the target orbit by the third stage.
The Cyclone booster rocket is designed to place scientific, commercial and military
spacecrafts into circular and elliptic orbits with 150 to 10000 km altitude and
73.6° to 82.5° orbit inclination. Cyclone allows to launch into polar quasisynchronous
orbits spacecrafts designed to study near Earth space environement and the Sun as well as
cartography satellites and satellites for defence purposes.
Launch mass of the rocket is 186 - 190 tonnes, length - 39.3 m, diameter - 3 m. Payload
mass is 3.6 tonnes for 200 km altitude orbit and 2.5 tonnes for the 1000 km altitude orbit.
The rocket is capable of launching up to 6 spacecrafts simultaneously.